International scientific peer-reviewed journal Achievements in the life sciences
international scientific peer-reviewed journal
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    №4 of Achievements in the life sciences, 2012

Reva G.V., Reva I.V., Yamamoto T., Gaponko O.V., Kovaleva I.V., Usov V.V., Krasnikov Yu.A., Lomakin A.V., Novikov А.S., Mozhilevskaya K.S., Аn Е.А., Albrandt K.F.
Conception of development lens in the human eye
It is showed two start in development of the lens in the human eye: ectodermal for epithelial cells of lens and neuroglial for posterior sector of lens. This facts explain many different cataracts and especially topographycies cataracts in eyes of patient with glaucoma. Hypothesis about stem cells in posterior cuadrant of lens from inter layer of eyes shows formation of lens vesicle in development in vitro, absence of lens fibers, destruction synthesis of cristillines and development of experimental cataracts in experiments with isolated from inner layer of eyes bocal lens placodas marker. Phenotyping of glials cells, migranted from eyes to zone of invagination lens placoda is produced with marker S100.
Keywords: lens, lens fiber, cataracts, neuroglia.
Achievements in the Life Sciences, 2012. №4. P. 5-13
Ostroumov S.A.
On ecology and biogeochemistry of hazardous substances detoxification in the biosphere
In order to understand the natural processes of detoxification of toxic elements and substances, it is worthwhile to consider the main challenges to the current conceptualization of the types of matter in the biosphere. Author suggests a new conceptualization which is based on his suggestion to identify a third type of matter in the environment to meet and respond to the challenges. Author gives the third type of matter «ex-living matter» (ELM). Relevant literature and his experiments (carried out together with his co-authors) are analyzed. Analysis provided a solid factual foundation to this conceptualization as well as other data available in literature. Main functions of ELM in the biosphere were also formulated and considered by the author. Some alternatives and variants in verbal expression to be used as a name for the new type of matter are also included in the publication.
Keywords: toxic substances, detoxification of toxic wastes, biosphere, environment, ecology, living matter, types of matter, ex-living matter, heavy metals.
Achievements in the Life Sciences, 2012. №4. P. 14-28
Seryodkin I.V.
Dietary intake of brown bears in the Sikhote-Alin
Phytogenous forage prevails in the dietary intake of brown bears in the Sikhote-Alin (89,7 % of annual intake). Herbs, korean pine nuts, mongolian oak acorns, and cowberry are the most significant sources of brown bear forage in this region. Animal prey plays an important role in bear’s nourishment in spring, comprising up to 45,5 % of intake in April. Of animal prey, mammals are the most significant component of brown bear nourishment.
Keywords: brown bear, Ursus arctos, Sikhote-Alin, dietary intake.
Achievements in the Life Sciences, 2012. №4. P. 29-40
Lobkova L.E., Perova S.N., Chebanova V.V.
Benthic fauna under the influence of thermal waters in the Geyser Valley (Kamchatka)
Taxonomic composition of macrozoobenthos in the Geyser Valley was studied in 2000–2009. Total of 140 species and forms of bottom fauna are found in the investigated water bodies and water courses among which amphibiotic insects dominate. Faunistic list is given for individual bodies of water. It is established that benthic fauna has been actively colonizing water bodies formed after the landslide in 2007. The highest species richness and abundance of macrozoobenthos was recorded in sites influenced by thermal waters.
Keywords: fauna, aquatic life, macrozoobenthos, hot water, the Geyser Valley.
Achievements in the Life Sciences, 2012. №4. P. 41-50
Zolotarev V.A.
Microbial communities and microcosms: the role models
Scientists often use models to reduce the complexity of intractable problems and to increase their understanding of the natural world. Every ecosystem is a kind of a biosphere model in small size, having appropriate integrity and reflecting the biotic circulation of the Earth. Any ecosystem is arranged fractally, the essentials of phenomena at one scale are repeated at all smaller or larger scales. Protists can be served as model organisms to assess fundamental ecological issues. Periphyton communities that are formed on artificial substrates can be defined as «periphyton model communities» (PMC). There are all the main elements of the biotic circulation in the PMC: phototrophs producing organic matter, heterotrophs, decomposers, and the substrate with adsorbed chemicals. Microperiphyton communities can be very useful indicators of the water quality. A new index of periphyton flagellates (IPF) as an indicator of the trophic status of a water-body and also new index of sublethal toxicity (IST) were developed. Biodiversity and relative abundance of protozoans at PMC can be used as indicators of toxic pollution, trophic status, acidification and nanoparticles. Future on-line aquatic monitoring systems will undoubtedly continue a trend towards miniaturization, utilization of advanced data acquisition and communication techniques.
Keywords: biomonitoring, model communities, microcosm, protozoa.
Achievements in the Life Sciences, 2012. №4. P. 51-63
Pamirsky I.E., Golokhvast K.S.
Search for homologues of proteins of primitive organisms biomineralization
Bioinformatic methods (in silica) at the level of entire polypeptide chains and individual sections of the amino acid sequence set (including the discovery of new proteins) degree of homology groups of proteins in biomineralization silaffins, silacidins and silicateins. For the typical representatives of these proteins as well as silicase (only representative) was searched homologs of the primary structure of the known peptides and polypeptides (processed about 2000 amino acid sequences). The similarity of the primary structures of homologous silaffins was 21–94 % (E-value from 0 to 5,0×10-6), silacidins – 45–98 % (E-value of 2,0×10-3 to 6,7×10-2), silicateins – 39–50 % (E-value of 3,0×10-89 to 1,0×10-88), silicase – 28–40 % (E-value of 8,0×10-43 to 1,0×10-17). Analyzed the distribution of homologs of the families of viruses as well as classes of bacteria plants and animals. Compared the biological functions of the studied proteins and their homologs.
Keywords: proteins of mineralization, silaffins, silacidines, silicatein, silicase.
Achievements in the Life Sciences, 2012. №4. P. 64-72
Korneev D.V., Bessudnova E.V., Zaitsev B.N.
Analisys of interaction between nanoparticles of TiO2 and surface of human erythrocytes
By atomic force spectroscopy investigated the power characteristics of the interaction between nanoparticles (3–5 nm) titanium dioxide (TiO2) in two crystalline modifications (anatase and amorphous) and the surface of human erythrocytes. The dependence of strength characteristics of the interaction of the crystalline modification of TiO2 is shown. Original method of force measurements using a probe for different objects (with an intermediate washing) is used, this makes it possible to avoid the error influence of the force constant of the cantilever on the measurement results. The surface of the AFM probe at all stages controlled by transmission electron microscopy.
Keywords: erythrocyte, nanoparticles, titanium dioxide, atomic force microscopy.
Achievements in the Life Sciences, 2012. №4. P. 73-77
Ermakov V.V.
New studies on the interactions between chemicals and organisms: at the frontiers of environmental science and biogeochemistry
This report is a response to series of publications analysing issues of chemical interactions between pollutants and organisms. Author emphasized accumulation of new important information on the toxicity of certain chemicals. New data on organism effect on pollutant chemistry of environment: movement of chemicals in the environment, the concentration of pollutants in the environment ware obtained. Dr. S.A. Ostroumov (Biological Sciences) and co-authors researches and papers (M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University) are commented. Novelty, practical and theoretical value of these researches and papers are denoted.
Keywords: ecology, biogeochemistry, water quality, water purification, ecotoxicology, phytoremediation, phytotechnology, biosphere, toxic substances, risk assessment, environment.
Achievements in the Life Sciences, 2012. №4. P. 78-81
Ostroumov S.A., Solomonova E.A.
Detergent effect on plants
The experiments of studies detergent effects of Liquid Crystal Concentrate (LCC) on aquatic macrophytes Elodea canadensis were carried out in laboratory microcosms. It was shown that the detergent LCC produced some negative effects on the macrophytes at the concentration range of 50,00–150,00 microL/mL. At a concentration of 150,00 microL/mL the plants died after the incubation period of 21 days.
Keywords: detergent, phytotoxicity, macrophytes, Liquid Crystal Concentrate, Elodea canadensis.
Achievements in the Life Sciences, 2012. №4. P. 82-87
Kotelevtsev S.V.
30th anniversary of educational activity of Dr. S.A. Ostroumov (M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russian Federation)
Achievements in the Life Sciences, 2012. №4. P. 88-92
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