International scientific peer-reviewed journal Achievements in the life sciences
international scientific peer-reviewed journal
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    №6 of Achievements in the life sciences, 2013

Novikov A.S., Reva G.V., Yamamoto Т., Reva I.V., Lomakin A.V., Krasnikov Y.A., Аbdullin E.A., Аlbrandt K.F., Моzyilevskaya Е.S., Vashcenko E.V.
Mechanisms of development in the human's eye choroid
Despite the seriousness of the problems of congenital and acquired ocular pathology, at the present stage there is little data on the pathogens mechanisms of the development of many diseases that cause blindness and disability of ophthalmic patients: age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and diabetic retinopathy. Vascular disorders are leading in the pathogenesis of these diseases. In addressing the problems of development of choroid vascularization is pathogenetical based treatment for diseases associated with angiodisgenesis. This raises major problems requiring urgent solutions, study of mechanisms of vascularization of choroid. Using immunohistochemical methods of role of effector cells of immunofagocytes levels in the development of the choroides was studied. The phenotypes of CD-effectors, which are marked in the early stages of development of the human eye were studed. Knowledge of the mechanisms of melanogenesis in vascular clad of eye could clarify the problem of development of tumors and AMD not only within the structures of the eye, but also could solve the problem of oncogenesis. Development algorithm of vascular pool in human ontogenesis based on the obtained data was set. Monitoring of the formation of vascular pool and melanism of choroidal structures was conducted.
Keywords: age-related macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy, melanogenis, angiogenesis, choroid.
Achievements in the Life Sciences, 2013. №6. P. 5-16
Bolotin E.I.
Medical and demographic estimation of russian far east territories as integral factor of comfort
Contemporaneous medical and geographic speciality of Russian Far East has been carried. The estimation of comfort for activity of population is analyzed.
Keywords: Russian Far East, geographical analysis, comfort of expanse.
Achievements in the Life Sciences, 2013. №6. P. 17-25
Kupriyanov A.N., Manakov Yu.A.
Change of floristic structure of kuzbass landscapes under the anthropogenous and technogenic factors influence
The floristic structure of natural and disturbed in the course of economic activity plant communities is studied. Distinctions on such indicators as structure of communities, specific structure, change of domi-nant, ratio of ecological groups of types and vital forms are revealed. It was detected that for the forest-steppe vegetable cover of Kuznetsk Depression preservation requires creation natural reservations.
Keywords: ecology, plant communities, Kemerovo region.
Achievements in the Life Sciences, 2013. №6. P. 26-35
Kokorina N.G., Okolelova A.A., Molchanova E.A.
Detoxication mechanism of petropolluted soils by chitosan
Possibility of chitosan application for a detoxication of the petropolluted soils of gas station is studied for the first time. Profitability of use of this natural biopolymer is caused by existence of a local source of raw materials – the waste received at cleaning of turbines of the Volga hydroelectric power station. It is shown that chitosan effectively occludes oil products, it can be applied both as a crushed condition and as solution. Article is devoted to studying of the mechanism of sorption oil products (at the expense of supramolecular structures) and heavy metals (by means of formation of helate-complex connections) from soils firm and solution of chitosan. Prevention possibility of soils with a sorption barrier – alternating layers of sand (large quartz, river and small) and chitosan is proved. Doses, quantities and the power of sand and chitosan layers, the mass of a sorbent adjusted diameter of grains, the areas of pollution and a type of raw materials for producing chitosan are calculated. Physical and chemical characteristics of chitosan received by authors are provided.
Keywords: chitin, chitosan, oil products, sorption methods of cleaning.
Achievements in the Life Sciences, 2013. №6. P. 36-49
Kiseleva A.A., Rozhdestvina V.I.
Coal phytocenosises: molecular and electron-microscopy analysis
Phytocenosises of coal caustobioliths (peat and coal of different ages of Sergeevka and Erkovetsky deposits) have studied by molecular spectroscopy and electron microscopy. Reconstruction of the conditions of accumulation of coal is made.
Keywords: coal, peat, phytocenosis, molecular geochemistry, biomarkers, microstructure.
Achievements in the Life Sciences, 2013. №6. P. 50-65
Ermakov V.V.
On theoretical and applied significance of the studies of ecological systems in the present-day biosphere
This publication presents a concise review and analysis of the current state in the studies of water quality in aquatic ecosystems. A new important step was made by a paper titled “Polyfunctional role of biodiversity in processes leading to water purification: Current conceptualizations and concluding re-marks” that was published in the journal “Hydrobiologia”. The paper discovered and underlined a sig-nificant role of almost all groups of aquatic biodiversity in improving water quality and water self-purification. The conclusions of this paper were supported by scientists of a number of top universities and institutes of USA, Belgium, Sweden, Germany, France and other countries. The paper called for a new policy on aquatic biodiversity and water resources. The new policy means a shift to a better appre-ciation of the indispensable role of biological community (biota, biodiversity) in improving water quality in surface ecosystems.
Keywords: aquatic ecosystems, biodiversity, water quality, water self-purification.
Achievements in the Life Sciences, 2013. №6. P. 66-68
Ostroumov S.A.
The fourth and fifth biogeochemical principles
Vladimir Vernadsky formulated three biogeochemical principles. These principles were set out for example in the book «The chemical structure of the biosphere of the Earth and its environment». The author of this brief communication proposed two new principles as an addition to Vernadsky’s principles. The new principles make various aspects of the vital role of living organisms in conditioning the geochemical environment more visible.
Keywords: biosphere, V.I. Vernadsky, biogeochemistry, environmental science, ecolo-gy, biogeochemical principles.
Achievements in the Life Sciences, 2013. №6. P. 69-70
Poklonov V.A., Kotelevtsev S.V., Ostroumov S.A.
Phytotoxicity of detergents containing surface-active agents (surfactants) in bioassaying with plant seedlings
At the previous work it has shown that detergents are more dangerous aquatic pollutants than it had been thought before. The effects of synthetic detergents on the seedlings of the two species of the higher plants – Vigna radiata and Lens culinaris – were studied in this research project. The research was conducted under the conditions of an experimental biotest. Three detergents were tested: Losk Automat Intensive, Dosia Color, and Pemolux. At a concentration of the detergents 0.5 g/L the elon-gation rate of the seedlings was less than in control. At a concentration of 5 g/L the seedlings of the both plants died. It is a first discovery of the detergent phytotoxicity on these two species of higher plants – Vigna radiata and Lens culinaris.
Keywords: bioassay, testing, detergent, laundry detergents, synthetic surfactants, plant seed-lings, phytotoxicity, Vigna radiata, Lens culinaris.
Achievements in the Life Sciences, 2013. №6. P. 71-78
Ostroumov S.A.
Toward conceptual changes in ecology and biospheric sciences. hi-ecological technologies and scientific basis for alleviation of environmental problems
The scientific progress in several areas of modern science made less visible some important advances in ecology and environmental science, hydrobiology, ecological biogeochemistry, ecotoxicology. Therefore it is worth revisiting some fundamental concepts. Several fundamental notions of ecology are undergoing significant changes. The author presented some elements of innovation on the following topics: information network in the biosphere; self-maintenance mechanisms and stability in ecosystem and the biosphere; entropy flows; negative entropy outside of organisms; the biosphere and biomatrix of the biosphere; a new system of criteria for ecological hazard identification; environmental hazards of new types; better understanding of how ecosystems maintain water quality; new concept of exometabolism, and integral metabolism; indirect way of biotic conditioning of the environment; practical applications and 'hiecological technologies' in ecosystems.
Keywords: ecology, biospheric science, hydrobiology, water quality, biosphere, pollution, ecosystems, environmental safety, hazards, biochemical ecology.
Achievements in the Life Sciences, 2013. №6. P. 79-83
Buryak А.К.
Innovative aspects of biogeochemistry and relevant issues of studying biosphere
In this publication an analysis of a recent book entitled “Innovative Aspects of Biogeochemistry”, co-authored and published by four scientists V.V. Ermakov, E.A. Karpova, V.D. Korzh, S.A. Ostroumov (Moscow) is given. In the book a large amount of new facts in geochemistry, biology, ecology, bio-chemistry, and chemistry of the biosphere was summarized. The authors of the book presented new useful concepts on biogeochemistry of terrestrial and aquatic environment and ecosystems. The book is recommended to scientists and lecturers on environmental sciences, life sciences, oceanology, soil science, and geochemistry.
Keywords: biogeochemistry, biosphere, microelements.
Achievements in the Life Sciences, 2013. №6. P. 84-86
Sadchikov A.P.
Moscow Naturalist Society as a social phenomenon in life of Russia
In article activity and social role of the Moscow Naturalist Society, the oldest scientific organization in Russia (since 1805), are analyzed.
Keywords: Moscow Naturalist Society, MNS, social role.
Achievements in the Life Sciences, 2013. №6. P. 87-100
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